Typhoid- Microscopic view of the bacteria that causes typhoid.

Typhoid is a bacterial infection caused by salmonella typhi. Typhoid is spread through contaminated food or water. Symptoms of typhoid usually include high fever, headache, anorexia, abdominal pain, lethargy, constipation or diarrhea and enlargement of liver or spleen.

The diagnosis of typhoid can usually be confirmed by finding salmonella typhi in a blood culture, urine or stool test or Widal test. There are vaccines for typhoid but they are not very effective.

What is Typhoid Fever?

Source: Paul Cochrane

Symptoms


Typhoid- Headaches is one of the main symptoms of typhoid.
Source: thechart.blogs

In typhoid the symptoms become severe gradually with the early ones including fever and abdominal pain. High fever and diarrhoea occur as the disease gets worse. Some people with typhoid develop rashes on the abdomen and chest. Other symptoms that occur in typhoid include:

  1. Agitation.
  2. Slow, sluggish, lethargic feeling.
  3. Severe fatigue.
  4. Bloody stools.
  5. Chills.
  6. Nosebleeds.
  7. Weakness.

Causes


Typhoid- Eating contaminated food can lead to typhoid.

Eating or drinking contaminated food or water is the major cause of typhoid. Typhoid is also spread through carriers. Many people who have been treated for typhoid still carry the bacteria in them and these people are called ‘carriers.’ They shed the bacteria in their stool and it can possibly infect others.

Treatment


The most common treatment for typhoid is antibiotics.

The most common method of treating typhoid is through antibiotics.There are typhoid vaccines available as either an injection or through oral capsules. However they are not completely effective. There are ways by which one can prevent typhoid such as:

  1. Hand washing.
  2. Safe and clean drinking water.
  3. Improved sanitation.
  4. Vaccination though it is not 100% effective and has side effects.
  5. Avoid raw fruits and vegetables which have been washed in unclean water.

Prevention


Typhoid- Avoid having unhygienic food to stay healthy.

Typhoid fever is a serious and widespread illness that is caused by salmonella typhi bacteria which is transmitted by the consumption of contaminated food and water.

Careful hand-washing after using the toilets and prior to handling food will help prevent the spread of typhoid. Avoiding contaminated water and food will help prevent typhoid. Certain measures could prevent typhoid such as:

  1. Boiling water before drinking.
  2. Eating properly washed fruits and vegetables or peeling the skin before eating.
  3. Careful washing of food which can be easily contaminated.
  4. Keeping flies away from food.
  5. Avoiding street food with low hygiene.
  6. Avoiding raw vegetables and fruits washed in unclean water.

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